Music with Arduino using Buzzer!!!

Music with Arduino using Buzzer!!!

Hello guys!
Today we’ll see how to generate musical tones in Arduino with a simple buzzer!!

So, lets make some noise music!!!

For this tutorial we need:
                1) An Arduino board  ( uno / mega)
                2) a Buzzer
                3) A 100 Ohm resistor
                4) PC or Laptop

Arduino Uno                                               Buzzer

Arduino_uno   buzzer_robogearsbd_3-copy

Buzzers can be classified as active and passive or Magnetic and Piezo buzzers. But without digging deeper into the physics about buzzers, lets see how we can make them sound.
A buzzer typically does exactly as its name suggests. You put a voltage across its terminals and you get a beeping sound/noise.
But there is more to it. If you feed it with a pulse(PWM like) instead of a DC voltage, it will sound at the frequency of that pulse and thus can play a note / tone!
And thankfully there is a builtin tone() function which takes the pin number,frequency and (optionally) the duration as parameters.

Circuit Setup

The circuit is fairly simple, just like connecting an LED.
rsz_1rsz_w0cqs

Here since we are using the low price magnetic buzzer, the 100 Ohm resistor is used in series to limit current for safety purpose.
This also make the sound softer and clearer while reducing the volume.


 

 

Code

The following code will play “Do Re Mi Fa….(Sa Re Ga Ma….)” in the middle C scale.

int Do = 262, Re = 294 , Mi = 330 , Fa = 349 , Sol = 392 , 
    La = 440 , Si = 494, Do2 = 524;


int buzz = 9; //Not necessarily a PWM pin, any digital pin will work!!! 
int wait = 0;

void setup()
{

  pinMode(buzz, OUTPUT);

}

void loop()
{
  
  wait = 500;

  tone(buzz, Do, wait);
  delay(1000);

  tone(buzz, Re, wait);
  delay(1000);
  tone(buzz, Mi, wait);
  delay(1000);
  tone(buzz, Fa, wait);   //this note might sound too sharp
  delay(1000);
  tone(buzz, Sol, wait);
  delay(1000);
  tone(buzz, La, wait);
  delay(1000);
  tone(buzz, Si, wait);
  delay(1000);

  tone(buzz, Do2, wait);
  delay(1000);
  
        noTone(buzz);

}

You can vary the tempo(speed) changing the wait  and delay() value.


Now its time for you to play with the notes and write programs to play your favorite songs into melody!! You can find a lot of arduino code for your favorite musics..
Here is a one i found in the web that you might wanna check out!!!  Guess the music !! (*wink*)

/*
  Arduino Mario Bros Tunes
  With Piezo Buzzer and PWM

  Connect the positive side of the Buzzer to pin 9,
  then the negative side to a 1k ohm resistor. Connect
  the other side of the 1 k ohm resistor to
  ground(GND) pin on the Arduino.

  by: Dipto Pratyaksa
  last updated: 31/3/13
*/

/*************************************************
 * Public Constants
 *************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

#define melodyPin 9
//Mario main theme melody
int melody[] = {
  NOTE_E7, NOTE_E7, 0, NOTE_E7,
  0, NOTE_C7, NOTE_E7, 0,
  NOTE_G7, 0, 0,  0,
  NOTE_G6, 0, 0, 0,

  NOTE_C7, 0, 0, NOTE_G6,
  0, 0, NOTE_E6, 0,
  0, NOTE_A6, 0, NOTE_B6,
  0, NOTE_AS6, NOTE_A6, 0,

  NOTE_G6, NOTE_E7, NOTE_G7,
  NOTE_A7, 0, NOTE_F7, NOTE_G7,
  0, NOTE_E7, 0, NOTE_C7,
  NOTE_D7, NOTE_B6, 0, 0,

  NOTE_C7, 0, 0, NOTE_G6,
  0, 0, NOTE_E6, 0,
  0, NOTE_A6, 0, NOTE_B6,
  0, NOTE_AS6, NOTE_A6, 0,

  NOTE_G6, NOTE_E7, NOTE_G7,
  NOTE_A7, 0, NOTE_F7, NOTE_G7,
  0, NOTE_E7, 0, NOTE_C7,
  NOTE_D7, NOTE_B6, 0, 0
};
//Mario main them tempo
int tempo[] = {
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,

  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,

  9, 9, 9,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,

  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,

  9, 9, 9,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
};
//Underworld melody
int underworld_melody[] = {
  NOTE_C4, NOTE_C5, NOTE_A3, NOTE_A4,
  NOTE_AS3, NOTE_AS4, 0,
  0,
  NOTE_C4, NOTE_C5, NOTE_A3, NOTE_A4,
  NOTE_AS3, NOTE_AS4, 0,
  0,
  NOTE_F3, NOTE_F4, NOTE_D3, NOTE_D4,
  NOTE_DS3, NOTE_DS4, 0,
  0,
  NOTE_F3, NOTE_F4, NOTE_D3, NOTE_D4,
  NOTE_DS3, NOTE_DS4, 0,
  0, NOTE_DS4, NOTE_CS4, NOTE_D4,
  NOTE_CS4, NOTE_DS4,
  NOTE_DS4, NOTE_GS3,
  NOTE_G3, NOTE_CS4,
  NOTE_C4, NOTE_FS4, NOTE_F4, NOTE_E3, NOTE_AS4, NOTE_A4,
  NOTE_GS4, NOTE_DS4, NOTE_B3,
  NOTE_AS3, NOTE_A3, NOTE_GS3,
  0, 0, 0
};
//Underwolrd tempo
int underworld_tempo[] = {
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 6,
  3,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 6,
  3,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 6,
  3,
  12, 12, 12, 12,
  12, 12, 6,
  6, 18, 18, 18,
  6, 6,
  6, 6,
  6, 6,
  18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18,
  10, 10, 10,
  10, 10, 10,
  3, 3, 3
};

void setup(void)
{
  pinMode(9, OUTPUT);//buzzer
  pinMode(13, OUTPUT);//led indicator when singing a note

}
void loop()
{
  //sing the tunes
  sing(1);
  sing(1);
  sing(2);
}
int song = 0;

void sing(int s) {
  // iterate over the notes of the melody:
  song = s;
  if (song == 2) {
    Serial.println(" 'Underworld Theme'");
    int size = sizeof(underworld_melody) / sizeof(int);
    for (int thisNote = 0; thisNote < size; thisNote++) {

      // to calculate the note duration, take one second
      // divided by the note type.
      //e.g. quarter note = 1000 / 4, eighth note = 1000/8, etc.
      int noteDuration = 1000 / underworld_tempo[thisNote];

      buzz(melodyPin, underworld_melody[thisNote], noteDuration);

      // to distinguish the notes, set a minimum time between them.
      // the note's duration + 30% seems to work well:
      int pauseBetweenNotes = noteDuration * 1.30;
      delay(pauseBetweenNotes);

      // stop the tone playing:
      buzz(melodyPin, 0, noteDuration);

    }

  } else {

    Serial.println(" 'Mario Theme'");
    int size = sizeof(melody) / sizeof(int);
    for (int thisNote = 0; thisNote < size; thisNote++) {

      // to calculate the note duration, take one second
      // divided by the note type.
      //e.g. quarter note = 1000 / 4, eighth note = 1000/8, etc.
      int noteDuration = 1000 / tempo[thisNote];

      buzz(melodyPin, melody[thisNote], noteDuration);

      // to distinguish the notes, set a minimum time between them.
      // the note's duration + 30% seems to work well:
      int pauseBetweenNotes = noteDuration * 1.30;
      delay(pauseBetweenNotes);

      // stop the tone playing:
      buzz(melodyPin, 0, noteDuration);

    }
  }
}

void buzz(int targetPin, long frequency, long length) {
  digitalWrite(13, HIGH);
  long delayValue = 1000000 / frequency / 2; // calculate the delay value between transitions
  //// 1 second's worth of microseconds, divided by the frequency, then split in half since
  //// there are two phases to each cycle
  long numCycles = frequency * length / 1000; // calculate the number of cycles for proper timing
  //// multiply frequency, which is really cycles per second, by the number of seconds to
  //// get the total number of cycles to produce
  for (long i = 0; i < numCycles; i++) { // for the calculated length of time...
    digitalWrite(targetPin, HIGH); // write the buzzer pin high to push out the diaphram
    delayMicroseconds(delayValue); // wait for the calculated delay value
    digitalWrite(targetPin, LOW); // write the buzzer pin low to pull back the diaphram
    delayMicroseconds(delayValue); // wait again or the calculated delay value
  }
  digitalWrite(13, LOW);

}

 

Feel free to comment if you face trouble following any part of this tutorial or need additional help!

Thank You!


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